Hip Hop music is comprised of several art forms: 1) MC-ing or rapping 2) B-boying or breakdancing 3) Deejaying (music) and 4) Graffiti art (visual art). This encyclopedia examines all four elements of Hip Hop Culture, providing students, scholars, and music fans with a complete history of the thirty-year music genre. Tracing its early roots from black DJs talking over music in the 1960s, the B-boy dancers in the 1970s, and the scratching and sampling techniques of the '80s to the founding of Def Jam productions, the current East Cost-West Coast rivalry, and superstars such as Eminem and 50 Cent, hip hop fans will find this an indispensable resource. This encyclopedia includes approximately 100 photographs, discographies after each entry, and a for further listening list at the end of the volume. Also included is the Hip Hop Declaration of Peace.
The extraordinary impact of hip-hop music on American culture over the past three decades is undeniable. At the forefront of this global phenomenon stand artists who broke new ground, both musically and politically. This unique reference provides substantial entries on the most revolutionary hip-hop artists and innovators, past and present, and offers in-depth coverage of each icon's influence in shaping hip-hop music. An essential reference for high school and public libraries, this encyclopedia will help students and interested readers uncover the historical and cultural framework of hip-hop as it extends to more recent artists. From Run DMC, the legendary group credited with bringing rap to the mainstream, to Salt N Pepa, the first all-female groups to stake their claim in the male dominated world of hip-hop, to Kanye West's breakout career as a producer and rapper, this encyclopedia recovers the histories of important artists both inside and outside the hip-hop mainstream, all while examining the varied and ever-changing forms of the music. Comprehensive profiles are enhanced by sidebars highlighting such topics as rivalries between artists, the importance of geographic region, musical innovations (including sampling technologies), legal issues, media scandals, and wider phenomena, movements, or styles of hip-hop that were sparked by a particular artist or group. Hip-hop fans will appreciate the critical analysis of the icons' social and cultural impact as well as issues of enduring significance, such as the influence of gangsta rap on youth culture. A timeline, a comprehensive introduction, numerous photos, and an extensive bibliography of print and electronic sources for further reading are included, making this encyclopedia a crucial reference for teachers and students interested in understanding the history and future of hip-hop music.