Be aware of: bias, political propaganda, intentional disinformation, satire, attention-seeking click-bait, conspiracy theories, and sloppy reporting.
ASK: Who wrote it? Who benefits? Who is left out?
From IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions), 2017.
|Agenda-setting||The idea that what the public thinks about is set by what the media chooses to cover - related to Framing and Priming|
|Confirmation bias||The tendency to believe information is credible if it matches the reader/viewer's existing belief system|
|Content farm / Content mill||A company that employs a staff of freelance writers to create content designed to attract views and get advertising revenue|
|Echo chamber||When information, ideas, or beliefs are reinforced by repetition within a closed system|
|Fact checking||The act of verifying assertions|
|False equivalence / False balance||A logical fallacy where there appears to be equivalence between two opposing arguments. It can refer to the practice of journalists who, in their zeal to be fair, present each side of a debate as equally credible, even when the factual evidence is stacked heavily on one side.|
|Filter bubble||When search tools give results we are likely to click on or share based on our past activity|
|Framing||How something is presented to the audience influences the choices people make about how to process that information - related to Agenda-setting and Priming|
|Herding phenomenon||As more sources begin to cover a story, even more journalists are likely to join the herd, often reinforcing the initial angle of the story|
|Native advertising||Paid, sponsored content designed to look like legitimate content produced by the media outlet|
|Priming||Media reporting provides a context for public discussion of an issue - related to Agenda-setting and Framing|
|Rhetological Fallacies||Term created as part of the Knowledge Is Beautiful project to describe both rhetorical techniques and logical fallacies. Interactive infographic here: https://informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/rhetological-fallacies/|
|Satisficing||The tendency of people to select "good enough" information over optimal information|
|Triangulation or cross verification||Establishing validity by examining multiple perspectives and sources|
|Virality||The rapid circulation of media from one user to another|
Some information adapted from "Truth, Truthiness, Triangulation: A News Literacy Toolkit for a 'Post-Truth' World." School Library Journal blog. 26 Nov. 2016